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Male infertility is any health issue in a man that lowers the chances of his female partner getting pregnant. About 13 out of 100 couples cannot get pregnant with unprotected sex. There are many causes for infertility in men and women. In over a third of infertility cases, the problem is with the man. This is most often due to problems with his sperm production or with sperm delivery. The man's body makes tiny cells called sperm. During sex, ejaculation normally delivers the sperm into the woman's body.
The male reproductive system makes, stores, and transports sperm. Chemicals in your body called hormones control this. Sperm and male sex hormone (testosterone) are made in the 2 testicles. The testicles are in the scrotum, a sac of skin below the penis. When the sperm leave the testicles, they go into a tube behind each testicle. This tube is called the epididymis. Male fertility depends on your body making normal sperm and delivering them. The sperm go into the female partner's vagina. The sperm travel through her cervix into her uterus to her fallopian tubes. There, if a sperm and egg meet, fertilization happens.
The system only works when genes, hormone levels and environmental conditions are right. Male infertility can often be fixed with an outpatient procedure. These are done under general anesthesia or IV sedation. The chance for pregnancy depends on many things. It mostly depends on the age and fertility of your female partner. Infertility is not your or your partner's fault. The American Society of Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) estimates that in about a third of infertility cases it is due to the male. Another third is the female.
Track 6: Micropenis
Micropenis is a medical term for a condition usually discovered in infants through a newborn examination. As the term suggests, Micropenis refers to an abnormally small but normally structured penis. The condition is caused by hormonal or genetic abnormalities. Before birth, a male infant’s genitalia develop in response to certain hormones, mainly androgens While a micropenis can develop on its own, with no other hormone-related conditions, it can occur along with other disorders.
Assuming there are no other health concerns, a micropenis functions the same as a normal, healthy penis. The ability to urinate and become erect shouldn’t be affected. A micropenis is sometimes associated with a lower sperm count, however, so fertility may be reduced. A buried penis is a penis of normal size, but it is hidden or buried under folds of skin of the abdomen, thigh, or scrotum. A buried penis is usually diagnosed in infancy, but it can develop later in life.
Another condition that may be mistaken for micropenis is webbed penis, also known as an “inconspicuous penis.” A baby boy can be born with it or it can develop from a circumcision complication. Treatment that begins earlier in life can lead to better results. Your child’s age, medical history, and the extent of the condition will help determine what treatment options make the most sense.
Track 7: Paraphimosis
Paraphimosis is a urologic emergency, occurring in uncircumcised males, in which the foreskin becomes trapped behind the corona and forms a tight band of constricting tissue. Often iatrogenically induced, paraphimosis can be prevented by returning the prepuce to cover the glans following penile manipulation. Paraphimosis most commonly occurs when a healthcare professional forgets to pull the foreskin back to its normal position after a medical examination or procedure. Other causes of paraphimosis include having an infection. experiencing physical trauma to the genital area. Manual reduction is performed by placing both index fingers on the dorsal border of the penis behind the retracted prepuce and both thumbs on the end of the glans. The glans is pushed back through the prepuce with the help of constant thumb pressure while the index fingers pull the prepuce over the glans.
In adults, paraphimosis is most commonly found in adolescents. It will occur in about 1% of all adult males over 16 years of age. Phimosis is normal for the uncircumcised infant/child and usually resolves around 5-7 years of age, however the child may be older. Pathologic phimosis: Phimosis that occurs due to scarring, infection, or inflammation. Risks. If you have phimosis, you are more likely to get penile cancer. If left untreated, it can lead to increased swelling, and in extreme cases, gangrene, and eventually the loss of your penis.
Track 8: Phimosis
Phimosis is a condition in which the foreskin cannot be retracted (pulled back) from around the tip of the penis. A tight foreskin is common in baby boys who are not circumcised, but it usually stops being a problem by the age of 3. Phimosis can occur naturally or be the result of scarring. In most men, phimosis is not a serious problem and will not require treatment. However, it is not expected to improve on its own. As noted above, paraphimosis is sometimes a medical emergency, and the penis may become permanently damaged if you do not seek immediate medical attention. Phimosis usually goes away on its own within the first few years of a child's life. If it causes problems for instance, when urinating (peeing) it may need to be treated. Using a special cream is often enough. Surgery is only rarely needed.
It can happen at up to around 10 years old, in some boys. The foreskin can be pulled back behind the glans in about 50 percent of 1-year-old boys, and almost 90 percent of 3-year-olds. Phimosis will occur in less than 1 percent of teenagers between 16 and 18. Phimosis. You can get treatment in an outpatient office by a urologist. How they treat you depends on the severity of your condition. They will also consider the cause of the problem and ask what kind of solutions you prefer.
In most cases, these penis disorders are easy to prevent. The head and the foreskin need to be washed and dried regularly. Be gentle with the skin if you pull it back, and do not forget to put it back in place when you finish.
Track 9: Prostate Cancer.
The prostate is a small walnut shaped gland in the pelvis of men. It is located next to the bladder and can be examined by getting a digital rectal exam. Prostate cancer is a form of cancer that develops in the prostate gland. It is the second-leading cause of cancer deaths for men in the U.S. About 1 in 9 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetime. This year, nearly 250,000 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer. Prostate cancer cells can spread by breaking away from a prostate tumor. They can travel through blood vessels or lymph nodes to reach other parts of the body. After spreading, cancer cells may attach to other tissues and grow to form new tumors, causing damage where they land.
The prostate and seminal vesicles are part of the male reproductive system. The prostate is about the size of a walnut and weighs about one ounce. The seminal vesicles are two much smaller paired glands. When prostate cancer occurs, it starts in the prostate gland and occasionally spreads to the seminal vesicles.
Track 10: Varicocele
A varicocele is an enlargement of the veins that transport oxygen-depleted blood away from the testicle. A varicocele (VAR-ih-koe-seel) is an enlargement of the veins within the loose bag of skin that holds your testicles (scrotum). A varicocele is similar to a varicose vein you might see in your leg. Left untreated, they can cause testicular atrophy (shrinkage of the testicles). There is also a strong association between varicoceles and male infertility. Varicoceles have been linked with decreases in sperm count and motility and increases in the number of deformed and ineffective sperm.
However, if you experience pain or swelling in your scrotum, discover a mass on your scrotum, notice that your testicles are different sizes, or develop a varicocele in your youth, or you are having problems with fertility, contact your doctor. A number of conditions can cause a scrotal mass or testicular pain, some of which require immediate treatment. Your spermatic cord carries blood to and from your testicles. It is not certain what causes varicoceles. However, many experts believe a varicocele forms when the valves inside the veins in the cord prevent your blood from flowing properly. The resulting backup causes the veins to widen (dilate). This might cause damage to the testicle and result in worsened fertility.
Shrinkage of the affected testicle (atrophy). The bulk of the testicle comprises sperm-producing tubules. When damaged, as from varicocele, the testicle shrinks and softens. It is not clear what causes the testicle to shrink, but the malfunctioning valves allow blood to pool in the veins, which can result in increased pressure in the veins and exposure to toxins in the blood that may cause testicular damage.
Infertility Varicoceles might keep the local temperature in or around the testicle too high, affecting sperm formation, movement (motility) and function.
Track 12: Urologic oncology
The urologist is the first doctor you see, deals with, and probably develop a bond with since he delivered the message that you had cancer. A medical oncologist is a cancer doctor who treats all types of cancer. In some other cancers, he is the first doctor you see, not the surgeon. Prostate cancer, Testicular cancer, Penile cancer, these are the different types of urologic cancers which an urologist can see in women.
A urologic oncologist is a physician with special training in diagnosing and treating cancers of the male and female urinary tract and the male reproductive organs. These organs include the bladder, kidneys, prostate, penis, and testicles. An oncologist is a doctor who treats cancer and provides medical care for a person diagnosed with cancer. The field of oncology has three major areas: medical, surgical, and radiation. A medical oncologist treats cancer using chemotherapy or other medications, such as targeted therapy or immunotherapy.
The nerves and muscles of the urinary system have to efficiently work together for the bladder to hold urine and release at an appropriate time. Nerves transmit messages back and forth from the brain and spinal cord to the bladder. When conditions of the nervous system affect the bladder, it is called neurogenic bladder Neurogenic bladder can result in two different types of bladder control problems: difficulty voiding (underactive bladder) or incontinence (overactive bladder). Other common symptoms include kidney stones and urinary tract infections (UTIs).
Therapy for nervous system disorders includes clean intermittent self-catheterization of the bladder, anticholinergic drugs, injection of Botulinum toxin into the bladder wall and advanced and less commonly used therapies such as sacral neuromodulation. Less marked neurological abnormalities can cause urological disorders as well for example, abnormalities of the sensory nervous system are thought by many researchers to play a role in disorders of painful or frequent urination.
Track 4: The use of multiple clinicians
Continuity of care is the extent to which a series of health care services is experienced as connected and coherent and is consistent with a patient’s health needs and personal circumstances.1 As patients increasingly receive care from multiple professionals and organizations, improving continuity of care has become a research priority. Although continuity of care is understood differently across health disciplines, an interdisciplinary review of concepts and measures of continuity of care found all disciplines would recognize 3 types of continuity.
Continuity of care among different clinicians refers to consistent and coherent care management and good measures are needed. We conducted a met summary of qualitative studies of patients’ experience with care to identify measurable elements that recur over a variety of contexts and health conditions as the basis for a generic measure of management continuity.
Track 2: Clinical Andrology
Basic and Clinical Andrology is an open access journal within the domain of andrology, covering all aspects of male reproductive and sexual health in humans and animal models. The journal aims to bring to light the various clinical advancements and research developments in andrology from the international community. Basic and Clinical Andrology is a continuation of the French journal Andrology and is the official journal of the French Society of Andrology (SALF). As an open-access journal, Basic and Clinical Andrology can ensure wide distribution and increased visibility of authors’ work.
"Andrology is important enough in human life for knowledge not to be restricted to a small community. Open access makes an article available freely available to anyone soon after it is accepted for publication. Accessibility to knowledge in andrology is not only required for all those involved in their everyday occupational life with male problems, but also for any scientific or medical teams. In this way, open access - and Basic and Clinical Andrology - is an open door in the andrological world."
Track 4: Urology:
Urology also known as genitourinary surgery, is the branch of medicine that focuses on surgical and medical diseases of the male and female urinary-tract system and the male reproductive organs. Organs under the domain of urology include the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, and the male reproductive organs (testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, and penis).
Urological techniques include minimally invasive robotic and laparoscopic surgery, laser-assisted surgeries, and other scope-guided procedures. Urologists receive training in open and minimally invasive surgical techniques, employing real-time ultrasound guidance, fiber-optic endoscopic equipment, and various lasers in the treatment of multiple benign and malignant conditions. Urology is closely related to (and urologists often collaborate with the practitioners of) oncology, Urology, gynaecology, andrology, pediatric surgery, colorectal surgery, gastroenterology, and endocrinology.
Andrology is the medical specialty that deals with male health, particularly relating to the problems of the male reproductive system and urological problems that are unique to men. It is the counterpart to gynaecology, which deals with medical issues which are specific to female health, especially reproductive and urologic health. Andrology covers anomalies in the connective tissues pertaining to the genitalia, as well as changes in the volume of cells, such as in genital hypertrophy or macrogenitosomia. From reproductive and urologic viewpoints, male-specific medical and surgical procedures include vasectomy, vasovasostomy (one of the vasectomy reversal procedures), orchidopexy and circumcision as well as intervention to deal with male genitourinary disorder.
Unlike gynaecology, which has a plethora of medical board certification programs worldwide, andrology has none. Andrology has only been studied as a distinct specialty since the late 1960s, the first specialist journal on the subject was the German periodical, published from 1969 onwards. The next specialty journal covering both the basic and clinical andrology was the International Journal of Andrology, established in 1978, which became the official journal of the European Academy of Andrology in 1992. In 1980 the American Society of Andrology launched the Journal of Andrology. In 2012, these two society journals merged into one premier journal in the field, named Andrology, with the first issue published in January 2013.